References Extended Alphabetical

Page If Used

Extended References Ordered Alphabetically

6, 17, 24 Bourke J (2014a) The Story of Pain: From Prayer to Painkillers. Oxford University Press.
I loved this book. Here are two very useful online articles by Joanne Bourke:

16 Bourke J (2014b) The Story of Pain: From Prayer to Painkillers. Oxford University Press.  Interview July 2014 @10.00mins.
24 Brainman (2014) Understanding Pain: Brainman stops his opioids. Accessed 10 Feb 2015
not in book Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V, Cohen R, and Gallacher D (2006) Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. European Journal of Pain, Volume 10, Issue 4, page 287, May 2006. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.06.009
There is a lot of pain around: Breivik et al 2006 is a really big study of tens of thousands of people in 15 european countries. 19% of people reported living with moderate to severe pain for more than 6 months. That is 1 in 5 people in persistent pain states, the majority for many years. Holy moly.Cohen and Mao (2014) quote an even higher figure: ‘In Europe, the prevalence of chronic pain is 25-30%.’
not in book Brinjikji W, et al (2014)  Systematic Literature Review of Imaging Features of Spinal Degeneration in Asymptomatic Populations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Nov 27.
33 Butler DS (2013) The Linguistic Journey and Pain.  Accessed 10 Feb 2015
19 Butler DS, and Moseley GL (2003) Explain Pain.
David Butler is really leading the way in using education as a tool for changing pain. I have attended two of pain workshops in the UK that are part of the NOI program  I learnt a lot, if you are body worker, they run courses all over the world and I would highly recommend them. ‘Pain Is Really Strange’ partly emerged after leaving an Explain Pain workshop run by Tim Beames in the UK and thinking I must improve the information I give to clients.

This youtube video from David Butler is great: Explaining Brain Smudging

not in book Butler RK, Finn DP (2009) Stress-induced analgesia. Prog Neurobiol. 2009 Jul;88(3):184-202. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.04.003. Epub 2009 Apr 22.
17 Cervero F (2012) Understanding Pain: Exploring the Perception of Pain. MIT Press.
Fernando Cervero is president of the International Association for the Study of Pain. This is a world wide network of pain specialists, they do great work. I really enjoyed his book, it is a great summary of the current understanding of pain.
influenced 12 Cohen SP, Mao J (2014) Neuropathic pain: mechanisms and their clinical implications. BMJ 2014; 348 doi: (Published 05 February 2014)
influenced 12 Costigan M, Scholz J, and Woolf CJ (2009) Neuropathic Pain: A Maladaptive Response of the Nervous System to Damage. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2009 ; 32: 1–32. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135531
Neuropathic pain occurs when the nerve itself is damaged. Faults in the structure of the wiring, over and above how the wires are connected or controlled, lead to additional problems. The damaged nerves can send out random signals at bizarre times. ‘Unlike acute pain, chronic neuropathic pain confers no individual or evolutionary advantage and is often considered to be a disease in itself.’ Cohen and Mao 2014

‘the prognosis is worse: injury to major nerves is more likely than injury to non-nervous tissue to result in chronic pain. In addition, neuropathic pain tends to be more refractory than non-neuropathic pain to conventional analgesics, such as non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids. However, because of the considerable overlap between neuropathic and nociceptive pain in terms of mechanisms and treatment modalities, it might be more constructive to view these entities as different points on the same continuum.’ Cohen and Mao 2014

The tools and approaches for working with chronic pain and chronic neuropathic pain are the same. It is hard to differentiate neuropathic pain, the mechanisms are frequently the same as the changes in sensitization – ‘different points on the same continuum.’ Cohen and Mao (2014) state ‘About a fifth of people who report chronic pain are thought to have predominantly neuropathic pain.’

not in book Craig AD (2003) A new view of pain as a homeostatic emotion. Trends in Neurosciences Vol.26 No.6 June 2003
not in book Damasio A and Carvalho GB (2013) The Nature of Feelings: Evolutionary and neurobiological origins. Nature Reviews Neuroscience Vol 14, Feb 2013, 143
19 Dunn WR,  Kuhn JE, Sanders R, An Q, Baumgarten KM,  Bishop JY, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Holloway GB, Jones GL, Benjamin C, Marx RG, McCarty EC, Poddar SK, Smith MV, Spencer EE, Vidal AF, Wolf BR, Wright RW (2014) Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity. A Cross-Sectional Study of 393 Patients with a Symptomatic Atraumatic Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014 May 21;96(10):793-800.
32 el Barzouhi A, Vleggeert-Lankamp CLAM, Lycklama à Nijeholt GJ, Van der Kallen BF, van den Hout WB, Jacobs WCH, Koes BW, and Peul WC (2013) Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Follow-up Assessment of Sciatica. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:999-1007March 14, 2013 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1209250
influenced 10 Farinella M, Roš H (2013) Neurocomic. Nobrow Press.
This is a highly recommended comic by two neuroscientists that looks at how the brain works. It is very rich and a lot of fun. Page 10 was inspired by their book. 
not in book Fotopoulou K and Jenkinson P (2014) Affective Touch by Others Determines how we Perceive our Own Body. Body In Mind blog March 4, 2014, accessed July 2014
31 Hargrove T (2014) A Guide To Better Movement: The science and practice of moving with more skill and less pain.
The best book on movement and posture that I have ever read.
4 Huffington Post (2012) Manteo Mitchell Broken Leg: U.S. 4x400M Runner Finishes Olympic Relay After Breaking Leg. Huffington Post, Eddie Pells. Accessed Feb 2015
6 Ingraham P (2011) Pain Changes How Pain Works. Accessed 10 Feb 2015
18 Ingraham P (2014) Your Back Is Not Out of Alignment. Accessed 09 Feb 2015.
influenced 7 and 16 Jackson M (2002) Pain – the science and culture of why we hurt Bloomsbury. PBK Original
This is wonderful book and one of the first I read that helped me appreciate the complexity of pain. ‘Pain moves around (the brain). No central pain station has emerged – instead we should talk about pain storms, or pain patterns, or even pain prints.’

Marni Jackson p149

‘The message … is simple but radical; Pain is unique to each person who suffers it. Science can’t cut pain out of the body and must learn to look beyond symptoms and ‘pain centres’ to the bigger picture: the person in pain and his world.’

Marni Jackson p132

‘It now seems as if pain carves a path through us in the same way that water creates a route down the side of a mountain. It flows where it must. Chronic pain is the result of flooding on that pathway, until it erodes a deeper channel, or creates new ones…… The longer and deeper pain flows the more it lays down a sensitized trail for future pain. And this can become a conduit for other kinds of pain – divorce angst will head straight for that channel, until body pain and life pain become indistinguishable…..Pain creates a language for wordless events like loss. Sometimes I think pain is just the body thinking out loud.

Marni Jackson p150

30 Kabat-Zinn J (2013) Full Catastrophe Living, Revised Edition: How to cope with stress, pain and illness using mindfulness meditation. Piatkus. See also
not in book Keltner D (2009) Born to Be Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life. 1st Ed, W. W. Norton & Company.
12 Kirton A, Winter A, Wirrell E, Snead OC (2008). Seizure response dogs: evaluation of a formal training program. Epilepsy Behav 13 (3): 499-504. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.05.011. PMID 18595778.
not in book Koutsikou S, Crook JJ, Earl EV, Leith JL, Watson TC, Lumb BM and Apps R (2014) Neural substrates underlying fear-evoked freezing: the periaqueductal grey – cerebellar link. J Physiol ( at University of Bristol Library Downloaded on April 16, 2014
Distorted body maps are important in pain (see Moseley 2008, Moseley et al 2012 Lotze and Moseley 2007). The Koutsikou et al 2014 paper is an important new contribution to the literature on dissociation and the freeze response. The linking of the cerebellum and the periaqueductal grey area in the brain stem provides more insight into how old parts of the brain limit the ability to control and perceive the body in stress situations. Why do people feel pain in a hand that has been amputated? People in chronic back pain surprisingly have less sensory receptors working in their backs. Many people in chronic pain actually have structural changes leading to shrinkage of gray matter in areas of the brain associated with sensing, emotion and cognition. These examples show there is a paradox of reduced information being interpreted as an increase in pain. 

The brain does strange things in the absence of accurate, sustained, sensory information. It fills the hole in the body map with pain, the absence is a threat. If this cycle is not broken we will get better and better at feeling pain. 

For our brain to control the body it needs good sensory information. One very powerful route out of the pain cycle is to actually try and feel your body more, not avoid feeling it as most people do. New and creative stimulation of the multitude of pathways from the body to the brain – itch, temperature, fine motor control, gross touch, fine touch, vibration, position sense – can be enhanced to improve body awareness. 

By developing our body maps, instead of the brain guessing and interpreting absence or innocuous sensations as pain, we can reteach the brain the real state of the body. This will create new pathways and connections, using the natural plasticity of neurons, to unlearn the pain habit.

4 Krane E (2011) The mystery of chronic pain. Accessed 14 Oct 2014
18, 19 Lederman E (2010) The fall of the postural–structural–biomechanical model in manual and physical therapies: Exemplified by lower back pain. CPDO Online Journal (2010), March, p1-14.
5 Levine P, and Phillips M (2012) Freedom from Pain. Discover your body’s power to overcome physical pain. Sounds True, Boulder, CO.
There is a huge literature on pain and a huge literature on trauma, but they do not really overlap. The insights from the world of trauma around working with dissociation are deeply relevant to the experience of pain, but with, one or two notable exceptions, there is very little discussion of dissociation in the pain literature. Similarly the trauma world could learn a lot from the sophistication of how complex events in the brain are described by some of the leading pain authors. Levine and Phillips (2012) has too narrow a focus for me. I worry they are swapping one simplification – pain is about tissues, for another – pain is about blocked emotion. A better introduction to Peter Levine’s thinking on trauma is the landmark ‘In An Unspoken Voice’.
not in book Lotze M, and Moseley GL (2007) Role of Distorted Body Image in Pain. Current Rheumatology Reports 2007, 9:488–496
21 Louw A (2013) Why Do I Hurt?
21 Louw A (2014) Teaching People About Pain. Institute For Chronic Pain. Accessed 10 Feb 2015
not in book McGlone F, Wessberg J, and Olausson HK (2014) Discriminative and Affective Touch: Sensing and Feeling. Neuron 82, May 21, 2014 a2014 Elsevier Inc.
12 Medical News Today (2014) Dogs ‘sniff out prostate cancer with 98% accuracy,’ study finds. Accessed 09 Feb 2015
For another canine sniffer try: Frankie the dog ‘sniffs out thyroid cancer’
29 Melzack R, and Katz J (2013) Pain. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1–15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For an in depth discussion see the blog by Dianne Jacobs
31 Merzenich M (2012) Dr. Michael Merzenich on Neuroscience, Learning and the Feldenkrais Method. YouTube and blog by Todd Hargrove, accessed May 2013.
28, 30 Merzenich M (2013)  Soft-Wired: How the New Science of Brain Plasticity Can Change Your Life. Parnassus Publishing, LCC, San Francisco.
5 Michaleff ZA, Maher CG, Chung-Wei CL, Rebbeck T, Jull GJ, Latimer J, Connelly L, Sterling M (2014) Comprehensive physiotherapy exercise programme or advice for chronic whiplash. (PROMISE): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. The Lancet
not in book Mikkelsen S (2014) Notes on Lorimer Moseley lecture 7 June 2014. Facebook post. Accessed 17 July 2014 Manuellterapeut Sigurd Mikkelsen
7 Moseley GL (2003) A pain neuromatrix approach to patients with chronic pain. Manual Therapy. 8(3): 130-140,
not in book Moseley GL (2003) Manual Therapy. 8(3): 130-140
not in book Moseley GL (2007) Painful Yarns. Dancing Giraffe Press. (Available as ebook only)
Really funny and sharply written short book. It is a great starting point to understand pain as something created by the nervous system.
not in book Moseley GL (2008) I can’t find it!  Distorted body image and tactile dysfunction in patients with back pain. Pain 140,1 239-43.
13 Moseley GL (2012a) Teaching people about pain: why do we keep beating around the bush? Pain Management, January 2012, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 1-3 , DOI 10.2217/pmt.11.73
8, 9 Moseley GL (2012b) Pain really is in the mind, but not in the way you think. The Conversation. Accessed 09 Feb 2015
32 Moseley GL (2014) You can’t slip a disc, spinal herniation probably doesn’t really matter, and your alignment doesn’t mean as much as you think. Blood and Iron Blog Accessed 10 Feb 2015
not in book Moseley GL, Gallace A, and Spence C (2012) Bodily illusions in health and disease: physiological and clinical perspectives and the concept of a cortical ‘body matrix’. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012 Jan;36(1):34-46. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.03.013. Epub 2011 Apr 6.
31 Rovner G (2014) World Congress on Pain comes to you. 6: Physical Activity and Chronic Pain. Quoted in blog covering presentation on pain.  Accessed 12 Dec 2014
5 Sandkühler J, and Lee J (2013) How to erase memory traces of pain and fear. Trends in Neuroscience. Vol 36, Issue 6, p343–352, June 2013. DOI:
not in book Scaer R (2001) The Neurophysiology of Dissociation and Chronic Disease. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, (2001), 26(1), 73-91. accessed 20/07/2014
not in book Scaer R (2005) The Trauma Spectrum Hidden Wounds and Human Resiliency. W. W. Norton & Company. Article  accessed July 2014
not in book Schleip R, Findley TW, Chaitow L, Huijing PA (2012) Fascia – The Tensional Network of the Human Body. Churchill Livingstone.
not in book Stewart M (2014) The road to pain reconceptualisation: Do metaphors help or hinder the journey? Journal of the Physiotherapy Pain Association. Issue No. 36 · Winter 2014 24-36  Downloaded Mar 2014:  Mar 2014
30 Suzuki S (1970) Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind. Boston, MA: Weatherhill.
This is a personal favourite as an introduction to all things Zen.
13 Thacker  MA, Clark AK, Marchand F, McMahon SP (2007) Pathophysiology of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: Immune Cells and Molecules. International Anesthesia Research Society Vol 105, No. 3, Sept 2007
Immune cells are everywhere. There are huge amounts living in all the soft tissues of the body, in the spinal cord and in the brain. It is fairly new science, but the activity of immune cells can lead the pain experience. For example: If you have a knee accident with some damage to your knee, your knee will become inflamed as the immune system activates to repair the tissues. Pain may be associated with nociceptive signals from the tissues and immune cell activity. We can say the immune system is under pressure and working hard, but, you heal and your knee repairs. Move forward a few years and you get a bad cold. Your immune system is under pressure again. Your control and coordinating systems remember what to do when they are under pressure – they fire up immune cells and inflammatory activity in the knee. Hey, it worked the last time. This is an explanation of how old pains reoccur at times of stress that we can take from reading Thacker et al 2007. 

More bizarrely the immune systems is even worse than the nervous system at accurately picking the source of the problem. It may generate an inflammatory response in the opposite knee that did not get damaged in the initial accident. This phenomenon is called a mirror pain and is now becoming understood as an immune system response.

20 Wall P (2000) Pain: The Science Of Suffering. Columbia University Press, New York.
Classic book from one of the pioneers of pain. He had terminal cancer as he wrote this book. With Ron Melzack he created pain gate theory – a 1960’s model than began to understand the complexities of pain as more than nociceptive signals.
influenced 1 Wikipedia (2015) Phantom Limb Pain. Accessed 2015-03-17
Phantom Limb Pain: ’Approximately 60 to 80% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful.’

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